Lower than normal level of oxygen supply to the body is called hypoxia. When the whole body is affected, it is called generalized hypoxia. It can cause light-headedness, nausea, disorientation, headaches, breathlessness, decreased heart rate, low blood pressure, etc. Local hypoxia affects a region of the body causing blue discoloration of the skin, pain and tissue death (gangrene). Anoxia is complete deprivation of oxygen supply.
Hypoxia can be a result of decreased pressures in the arteries, interruption of normal respiration, deficient hemoglobin, insufficient blood flow to a tissue, etc.
Normal physiological variations in oxygen concentrations in the body can be seen during vigorous physical exercise, high altitude (altitude sickness), underwater diving, premature birth, etc.
Pathological conditions which cause hypoxia are severe asthma attack, lung diseases, anemia, heart problems, drug over dose or poisoning, etc.
• administer oxygen with mechanical ventilation
• controlling heart rate and rhythm
• raise the fallen blood pressure with fluids, medications, etc.
• correcting the cause