Diabetes Mellitus, commonly known as diabetes is a chronic disease that affects the body’s ability to use energy from food. It is a life-long condition which is characterized by high levels of sugar or glucose in the blood. The main reason for high blood sugar levels in the body can be due to the body’s inability to utilize insulin or due to the defect in production of insulin or a combination of both. There are three major types of diabetes namely – type1 diabetes, type2 diabetes and gestational diabetes.
Type1 diabetes also called as Juvenile diabetes or insulin dependent diabetes mellitus is caused due to the inability of the pancreas to secrete insulin. It usually affects only 5% of the total diabetes population that mainly includes the adults and children.
Type2 diabetes is one of the most common types of diabetes that accounts to almost 95% of the total population affected by diabetes. Also called as non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, it is caused due to improper utilization of insulin by the body cells.
Gestational diabetes generally occurs in pregnant women late in their pregnancy. It is found to affect around 16% of the total pregnant women. This is caused due to the effect of pregnancy hormones on insulin production and utilization.