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Suffering From Hypothyroidism? Here's How It Increases The Chances Of Infertility

Suffering From Hypothyroidism? Here's How It Increases The Chances Of Infertility

A person suffering from hypothyroidism is at a higher risk of infertility, according to experts. Here is everything you need to know about the link between infertility and hypothyroidism.

Written by Editorial Team |Updated : March 23, 2022 11:06 AM IST

Every couple wants healthy babies to love and provide for and cement their relationship. However, many couples are unable to conceive even after years of trying.

Dr Hrishikesh Pai says that your thyroid issues might affect your fertility. With 1 in every 10 Indians having thyroid disease, you should be aware of the symptoms to watch for and how to improve your thyroid condition before starting your family.

What Is Thyroid?

The thyroid gland is a tiny organ that wraps around the trachea (windpipe) in the front portion of your neck. It is in the shape of a butterfly, with the two wings covering the sides of your throat.

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Your thyroid generates hormones involved in a variety of physiological functions. Thyroid illness occurs when your thyroid overproduces or underproduces these vital hormones. Thyroid disease can take several forms, including hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and thyroiditis.

Thyroid problems are far more common in women than in men. So it would help if you learned everything you can about these conditions as you or a family member could be affected over time.

What Is Hyperthyroidism, And Can It Affect Fertility?

Hyperthyroidism is a disorder characterized by an overactive thyroid, in which the body produces an overload of the thyroid hormones T3 and T4, resulting in a variety of effects in your body. Hyperthyroidism causes increased movement, thought process, and metabolism.

The primary trigger of hyperthyroidism is the autoimmune disorder Graves' disease. Dr Hrishikesh Pai says that Thyroid disorders can negatively affect your fertility in the following ways:

Disrupts your menstrual cycle

The most prevalent sign of severe hyperthyroidism is irregular or absent menstruation. The increase in thyroid hormones causes the liver to produce more SHBG (sex hormone-binding globulin), inhibiting ovulation.

Causes the male sperm count to drop

Hyperthyroidism can cause a significant drop in sperm count in men, resulting in decreased fertility. When the thyroid problem is corrected, the sperm count recovers typically to normal. There are no dangers associated with fathering a child for males using anti-thyroid medicines.

Increases the chances of miscarriage

Inadequately managed hyperthyroidism in the early stages of pregnancy may cause spontaneous abortion. Undiagnosed increased thyroid hormone levels in late pregnancy may raise the risk of a still-born baby.

Increases the probability of premature birth:

The consequences of uncontrolled hyperthyroidism are numerous. It may result in premature birth and a baby with low birth weight. Some studies show that women with hyperthyroidism experience high blood pressure induced by pregnancy.

What Causes Hyperthyroidism?

Hyperthyroidism can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

Graves' Disease

The thyroid gland as a whole may be overactive and release too much hormone in this disorder. This enlarges the thyroid gland and is also known as diffuse toxic goitre.


Thyroid nodules are solid or fluid-filled lumps that develop in the thyroid gland. The majority of thyroid nodules are non-cancerous and do not produce symptoms. Thyroid nodules are malignant in just a small number of cases.


A condition that can be painful or not at all. Thyroiditis causes the thyroid gland to release hormones that are stored there. This could last a couple or more weeks, and sometimes even months.

Excess iodine

The thyroid produces more hormones than required when there is too much iodine (the mineral used to produce thyroid hormones) in the body. Some drugs (such as amiodarone, a cardiac treatment) and cough syrups contain too much iodine.

Is Hyperthyroidism Curable?

Anti-thyroid medications, which stop the excessive production of thyroid hormone, are commonly used to treat hyperthyroidism. If anti-thyroid medicines fail to improve thyroid disorder, radioactive iodine may treat hyperthyroidism. The thyroid gland may be surgically removed in some situations.

Hyperthyroidism is a simple condition to treat. You can live a healthy life if you receive treatment. Hyperthyroidism, if left untreated, can cause bone problems, heart difficulties, and a hazardous condition known as thyroid storm.

However, hyperthyroidism medications can affect your baby in the womb and newborn. Some anti-thyroid drugs increase the risk of birth abnormalities. Anti-thyroid medicine can cause hypothyroidism (low thyroid levels) in a developing infant or newborn.

(The article is contributed by Dr Hrishikesh Pai, Consultant Gynaecologist & Infertility specialist, Lilavati Hospital, Mumbai, D Y Patil Hospital, and Fortis hospitals)

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