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World Down Syndrome Day: 5 Facts About This Genetic Disorder You Should Know

What you know about Down Syndrome? It's World Down Syndrome Day, let's test your knowledge about this genetic disorder.

Written by Longjam Dineshwori | Published : March 21, 2023 12:35 PM IST

World Down's Syndrome Day

Initiated by the United Nations in 2012, World Down Syndrome Day (WDSD) is observed every year on March 21 to raise public awareness about this genetic disorder. The date signifies the defect in chromosome 21 which causes Down syndrome. In most cases of Down syndrome, there is an extra separate chromosome 21 (3 separate copies of chromosome 21 instead of the usual 2 copies), which most often originates from the mother. Hence, this condition is also known as Trisomy 21. The theme of World Down's Syndrome Day 2023 is 'With Us Not For Us’ through which the UN is calling people and organisations around the world to be with them. Normally, a baby is born with 46 chromosomes. In Down syndrome, there is an extra copy of chromosome 21 that affects development of the baby’s body and brain, causing mental and physical challenges.

Types Of Down Syndrome

There are 3 types of Down syndrome: Trisomy 21, Translocation Down syndrome and Mosaic Down syndrome. About 95 per cent of patients have Trisomy 21.

Detecting Down Syndrome During Pregnancy

Down syndrome can be detected during pregnancy using screening tests (blood tests, ultrasound) and diagnostic tests (Chorionic villus sampling, Amniocentesis, Percutaneous umbilical blood sampling.)