Women require certain essential nutrients like iron, folic acid and most importantly calcium during various stages in their life. The term osteoporosis is synonymous with women, low calcium, weak bones leading to fractures. Vitamin D deficiency caused by low exposure to sunlight and low dietary vitamin D are the main causes. Over-exercising (e.g. marathon running), especially in young women, increases osteoporosis risk because of excessive weight loss and early termination of menstruation. Osteoporosis is often asymptomatic until a bone fractures, then an X-ray and bone density measurement confirms the diagnosis. Prevention and treatment choices include lifestyle changes such as no smoking, minimizing alcohol intake, regular (weight-bearing) exercise, maintaining healthy weight, low-salt and calcium plus vitamin D-rich diet.