The condition may be classified as a hemoglobinopathy which refers to genetic alteration causing structural abnormality in the hemoglobin molecule. Such defects lead to abnormal hemoglobin production and subsequent anemia. Symptom include tiredness pale skin bone problems enlargement of spleen along with delayed growth and complications such as iron overload leading to cardiac liver and immune system abnormalities. Thalassemia is monogenic which means that a single causative factor is implicated in pathogenesis of the condition. Mediterranean Middle East Southeast Asian regions as well as the Indian subcontinent have reported high incidence of thalassemia as well as carriers of the condition.