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Dealing with dementia can be traumatic for both the patient and caregiver. A new study at the University of Missouri has sought to identify and prevent neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's by developing procedures for defining the preclinical stages of Alzheimer's disease. Since there are no current treatments to reverse the course of Alzheimer's, this finding can help drug developers identify who could potentially benefit from a future Alzheimer's treatment before symptoms of cognitive decline start to arise. According to the researcher of this study, Andrew Kiselica, most families have had this experience of watching someone who is vibrant and full of life essentially turn into someone they can barely recognize. The purpose of this study is to help people avoid going through this in their last phase of life.
Defined by cognitive changes that impact one's ability to complete basic activities in daily life, dementia is most commonly caused by Alzheimer's disease, a brain disorder where a buildup of amyloid plaque in the brain leads to memory loss and other cognitive issues. By looking at datasets from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center, Kiselica examined more than 400 individuals who had been declared "cognitively normal," and particularly focused on 101 of these individuals who had a buildup of amyloid plaque in the brain that is associated with Alzheimer's disease.
After analyzing test results that provided data on their memory and attention, caregiver observations of signs of cognitive decline, and neurobehavioral symptoms like anxiety and depression, Kiselica found that those with the amyloid plaque in their brain were more likely to show Alzheimer's-related symptoms compared to those without the amyloid plaque, as expected. More significantly, Kiselica found that 42 per cent of those with the amyloid plaque showed no signs of cognitive decline at all.
Based on the findings, researchers have developed clear procedures for classifying individuals who are asymptomatic or symptomatic in the preclinical stages of Alzheimer's disease. "This is important because if a drug to treat Alzheimer's is approved by the FDA down the road, the drug will likely be most effective on those with Alzheimer's-related changes in the brain but no outward signs of cognitive decline yet. If those with Alzheimer's-related brain pathology and outward signs of cognitive decline take a proposed Alzheimer's drug in the future, it is possible it will be ineffective because the disease will not be able to reverse course once symptoms start to show up. Therefore, this research can help the developers of future drugs designed to treat Alzheimer's disease or dementia know what type of people to include in their clinical trials.
This is one of the first studies to demonstrate procedures for defining people in preclinical stages of Alzheimer's disease who do and do not show signs of cognitive and behavioral changes. Kiselica hopes, in some small way, that this research can lead to improving the quality of life for people suffering with neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's.
(With inputs from Agencies)